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Heterolytic activation of dihydrogen by platinum and palladium complexes

Karina Q Almeida Leñero, Yannick Guari, Paul C J Kamer, Piet W N M van Leeuwen, Bruno Donnadieu, Sylviane Sabo-Etienne, Bruno Chaudret, Martin Lutz, Anthony L Spek

Wide bite angle diphosphine ligands were used to prepare [(diphosphine)M(2-(diphenylphosphino)pyridine)]2+ complexes (M = Pd, Pt). Except for the ligand with the largest bite angle, 2-(diphenylphosphino)pyridine coordinates in a bidentate mode leading to bis-chelate complexes. In the case of Xantphos (9,9-dimethyl-4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-xanthene, βn = 111°) two types of complexes are formed, in which 2-(diphenylphosphino)pyridine coordinates in a mono- or bidentate fashion, respectively. The crystal structures of three of the Pt complexes were determined. The X-ray crystal structure of [(Xantphos)-Pt(2-(diphenylphosphino)pyridine)]2+ shows that Xantphos coordinates in a tridentate P,O,P fashion. Under dihydrogen pressure, the pyridyl moiety in the platinum complexes can de-coordinate to provide a vacant coordination site at the metal center. Furthermore it can act as an internal base to assist the heterolytic cleavage of dihydrogen. The reaction yields a platinum hydride with a protonated pyridine moiety in close proximity to one another. The structure as well as the reactivity of the complexes towards dihydrogen is governed by the steric requirements of the diphosphines. The crystal structure of [(dppf)PtH(2-(diphenylphosphino)pyridinium)](OTf)2 has been determined. Palladium complexes containing DPEphos or Xantphos decompose under dihydrogen pressure. In the case of dppf slow heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen occurs to form the hydride complex [(dppf)PdH(2-(diphenylphosphino)pyridinium)](OTf)2 which contains a protonated 2-(diphenylphosphino)pyridine ligand. In solution, this compound slowly undergoes P–C bond cleavage of the 2-(diphenylphosphino)pyridine ligand to form [(dppf)Pd(PHPh2)(η1-C5H4NH)](OTf)2. When the 6-methyl-2-pyridyldiphenylphosphine ligand is used, the reaction of the palladium complex with dihydrogen is very fast and the hydride complex immediately rearranges to the diphenylphosphino compound resulting from P–C bond cleavage.

Biological Approaches

Renee den Heeten, Paul C. J. Kamer, Wouter Laan

Over the last 60 years the increasing knowledge of transition metal chemistry has resulted in an enormous advance of homogeneous catalysis as an essential tool in both academic and industrial fields. Remarkably, phosphorus(III) donor ligands have played an important role in several of the acknowledged catalytic reactions. The positive effects of phosphine ligands in transition metal homogeneous catalysis have contributed largely to the evolution of the field into an indispensable tool in organic synthesis and the industrial production of chemicals. This book aims to address the design and synthesis of a comprehensive compilation of P(III) ligands for homogeneous catalysis. It not only focuses on the well-known traditional ligands that have been explored by catalysis researchers, but also includes promising ligand types that have traditionally been ignored mainly because of their challenging synthesis. Topics covered include ligand effects in homogeneous catalysis and rational catalyst design, P-stereogenic ligands, calixarenes, supramolecular approaches, solid phase synthesis, biological approaches, and solubility and separation. Ligand families covered in this book include phosphine, diphosphine, phosphite, diphosphite, phosphoramidite, phosphonite, phosphinite, phosphole, phosphinine, phosphinidenene, phosphaalkenes, phosphaalkynes, P-chiral ligands, and cage ligands. Each ligand class is accompanied by detailed and reliable synthetic procedures. Often the rate limiting step in the application of ligands in catalysis is the synthesis of the ligands themselves, which can often be very challenging and time consuming. This book will provide helpful advice as to the accessibility of ligands as well as their synthesis, thereby allowing researchers to make a more informed choice. Phosphorus(III) Ligands in Homogeneous Catalysis: Design and Synthesis is an essential overview of this important class of catalysts for academic and industrial researchers working in catalyst development, organometallic and synthetic chemistry.

Sustainable catalytic conversions of renewable substrates

Pieter C. A. Bruijnincx and Yuriy Román-Leshkov

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